Natural Environment Policy Paper
Anglesey’s Natural Environment:
Threats, Condition, Policy, Opportunities for the CLP
Prepared for the Anglesey Constituency Labour Party, December, 2018. Updated, March, 2019.
Editors Note: Apologies for the quality of the images in the page, the Labour Party version of WordPress does not allow for much editing of images – I have done my best
Table of Contents
Background information 3
Statement about information sources 3
1.1 What are the key risks to the natural environment of Anglesey? 3
1.1.1 Direct and indirect drivers of change 3
1.1.2 Impacts of climate change 4
1.2 National and Local Policy Context 4
1.3 Labour’s Environment Policy 6
1.3.1 Three Labour environmental priorities 6
1.3.2 Action on farming, fishing, habitats and wildlife management 6
2. The current state of the natural environment on Anglesey 8
2.1 River, lake, beach and sea water quality 8
2.2 The risk from flooding 9
2.3 Designated and protected areas for nature 10
2.4 Biodiversity 12
2.5 Greenspaces, recreation, tourism 14
3. Implementation on Anglesey of the Well-being of Future Generations (Wales) Act, 2015 15
3.1 Introduction to the Act and requirements for IACC 15
3.2 Progress with implementation on Anglesey 17
3.2.1 Anglesey and Gwynedd Public Services Board 17
3.3 Anglesey Well-being Assessment, 2017 17
3.3.1 How the assessment was conducted 18
3.3.2 Summary of outcomes, as presented in the report 19
3.3.4 Analysis of survey data for the CLP 19
3.4 Gwynedd and Anglesey Well-being Plan, 2018 26
3.4.1 Establishing nine well-being objectives 26
3.4.2. Six priority well-being areas, identified by the PSB 27
3.4.3 The next steps for the PSB 29
4. Implementation of ‘Planning Policy Wales’ on Anglesey 30
4.1 Natural and Distinctive Places 30
4.2 Biodiversity and Resilience of Ecosystems Duty 31
4.3 Green Infrastructure Assessments 32
5. Wales Environment Act, 2016 – implications for Anglesey 33
5.1 Background information 33
5.1.2 Managing our natural resources in a sustainable way 34
5.2. Timeline 35
5.3 Biodiversity and Resilience of Ecosystems Duty 35
5.4 Examples of actions by public authorities for enhancing biodiversity and resilience of ecosystems 35
5.5 Land management schemes 36
5.6 Anglesey’s Local Biodiversity Action Plan 36
6. Isle of Anglesey Joint Local Development Plan, 2011 – 2026 (update, 2017) 38
6.1 Coastal change management 38
6.1.1 Planning policy 38
6.1.2 Coastal management plans for Anglesey 39
6.2 Conserving and enhancing the natural environment 44
6.2.1 Nature conservation 44
6.2.2 AONBs and Special Landscape Areas (SLAs) 45
6.2.3 Protecting and enhancing biodiversity 46
7. The 2017 – 2022 Plan – Isle of Anglesey County Council 47
7.1 Further information for Objective 3 concerning protection of the environment 47
7.2. Relevant information from the IACC Progress report, 2017 – 2018 48
8. Summary of policy relevant points for consideration by the CLP 50
Statement about information sources
This document aims to provide relevant information in one place for use by the Ynys Mon CLP for policy development. It contains extracts of text from websites and documents that has been collected together for that purpose. This document has been put together for guidance only and does not aim to include all information that is relevant. Further information can be found on the web-pages listed and in the associated links.
1.1 What are the key risks to the natural environment of Anglesey?
Note: The introductory text within this section has been extracted from the SoNaRR report. http://www.naturalresources.wales/sonarr?lang=en
1.1.1 Direct and indirect drivers of change
The State of Natural Resources Report (SoNaRR; www.naturalresources.wales/sonarr) looks at how pressures on Wales’ natural resources are resulting in risks and threats to long-term social, cultural, environmental and economic well-being, as set out in the Well-Being of Future Generations (Wales) Act 2015. It looks at the key issues, as well as opportunities for integrated solutions that provide multiple benefits. SoNaRR considers issues on a Wales-wide scale and should be referred to for further information.
Drivers of change
Drivers are natural or human-induced factors that cause changes to ecosystems and can be either direct (causing physical change that can be measured) or indirect (less measurable in terms of causality), illustrated in Figure 1.1. The combined effects of these drivers have resulted in significant changes in our natural resources and ecosystems throughout the UK since World War Two1. Sustainable management requires a better understanding of these drivers to fully appreciate the root causes of unsustainable management
Figure 1.1 shows the relationships between ecosystems, well-being and broader social and economic change (from the 2011 UK National Ecosystems Assessment, NEA)
The key indirect drivers (UK NEA, 2011) which have resulted in significant change (positive and negative) both for natural resources and ecosystems and their benefits are:
Socio-political changes, especially in policies and incentive mechanisms
Cultural and behavioural changes – including purchasing preferences
The indirect drivers set out above have influenced the following direct drivers of change which mirror those set out in the UK NEA, 2011:
Variability and change in climate
Land and sea use change, leading to fragmentation of habitats and biodiversity loss
Nutrient enrichment and pollution
Over exploitation of natural resources
Introduction of invasive species, pests and diseases
These direct drivers are often interlinked – changes in one potentially lead to changes in another.
Both direct and indirect drivers vary in their importance in influencing change within and among natural resources and ecosystems and their benefits, but in general the scale and extent of their impact is increasing as time goes on.
1.1.2 Impacts of climate change
Under the Climate Change Act 2008, the UK Government is required to publish a Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA) covering the UK every five years. Using the climate projections to 2080, the report for Wales21 identified the following key risks for Wales:
Changes in soil conditions, biodiversity and landscape due to warmer, drier summers
Reductions in river flows and water availability during the summer, affecting water supplies and the natural environment
Increases in flooding on the coast and inland, affecting people, property and infrastructure
Changes in coastal evolution including erosion and coastal squeeze, affecting beaches, intertidal areas and other coastal features
Changes in species including a decline in native species, changes in migration patterns and increases in invasive species
Increases in the risk of pests and diseases affecting agriculture and forestry. The risk to livestock was a particular concern
1.2 National and Local Policy Context
There are several plans, strategies and national, sub-regional and local policy statements which provide a framework for development in Wales (text summarised from the Anglesey and Gwynedd Joint Local Development Plan):
National Policy Context
Planning Policy Wales (Draft of Edition 10 is available)
Planning Policy Wales is the Welsh Government’s policy document and it describes the land use context for using land sustainably. If national policy is sufficient, no local policies are included. If national guidance requires local interpretation, this is provided in the Plan.
Wales Spatial Plan: People, Places, Futures: 2008 Update
The Wales Spatial Plan introduced a strategic framework for directing development and policy interventions in Wales in the future. Anglesey and North Gwynedd is part of the North-West Wales Area: Eryri a Môn. Its vision for this zone is: “A high-quality natural and physical environment supporting a cultural and knowledge-based economy that will help the area to maintain and enhance its distinctive character, retain and attract back young people and sustain the Welsh language.
The Planning (Wales) Act 2015 The Planning (Wales) Act 2015 sets out a series of legislative changes to deliver reform of the planning system in Wales, to ensure it is fair, resilient and enables development. The
The Well-being of Future Generations (Wales) Act 2015 The Planning (Wales) Act 2015 introduced a statutory purpose for the planning system in Wales – any statutory body carrying out a planning function must exercise those functions in accordance with the principles of sustainable development as set out in the Well-being of Future Generations (Wales) Act 2015. Does not apply to development plans that had been submitted for Examination prior to 1 April 2016. This Act and its implementation on Anglesey is discussed in Section 3 below.
The Environment (Wales) Act 2016 The Environment (Wales) Act 2016 provides a framework to manage Wales’ natural resources in a proactive, sustainable and collaborative way and aims to position Wales as a low carbon and green economy, ready to adapt to the impacts of climate change. There are 7 parts to the Act. Part 1: Sustainable management of natural resources – enables Wales’ resources to be managed in a more proactive, sustainable and joined-up way. It also helps to tackle the challenges we face and is focused on the opportunities our resources provide. Part 7 establishes the Flood & Coastal Erosion Committee and clarifies the law for other environmental regulatory regimes including flood risk management and land drainage. The Committee has a wide advisory role including advice on the wider risks and benefits of flood and coastal erosion risk management in Wales across all sources of flooding i.e. flooding from surface water, main rivers, coastal flooding and coastal erosion. The Act places a duty on Welsh Ministers to ensure that by 2050, net emissions are at least 80% lower than the baseline set in legislation.
The Wales Act 2017, which received Royal Assent on 31 January 2017, introduced changes to the application of Planning Act 2008 in Wales. Planning Act 2008 provides that projects defined as Nationally Significant Infrastructure Projects, e.g. Wylfa Newydd Nuclear Power Station, are of such potential importance to the UK that a different consenting process has been established. Under the Nationally Significant Infrastructure Project (NSIP) consenting procedure in Planning Act 2008, an application for a Development Consent Order (DCO) is examined by the Planning Inspectorate. Implementation of “Planning Policy Wales” is presented in Section 4.
Climate Change Adaptation Plan This new plan (draft released, December, 2019, plan to be finalised in spring of 2019) contributes to all of the well-being goals. The plan endeavours to create a Resilient Wales by recognising the need to be prepared for the many impacts of climate change, including those that we are seeing now, and those we expect to see in the future. It details 32 actions to reduce the risks of climate change to Wales over the next five years. The highest risks to Wales are:
Local Policy context
Anglesey and Gwynedd Joint Local Development Plan (31 July, 2017)
The Plan sets out the strategy and aims for development and land use in the area covered by the Anglesey and Gwynedd Planning Authorities and includes policies to implement the strategy and aims over a period of 15 years (2011 to 2026). The Plan will have a significant influence on development of the whole area and individual communities. It provides guidance regarding the location of new houses, employment opportunities, leisure and community facilities and where these will be provided in the area. The Plan will be used to determine which developments will receive permission in the future by the Councils and where. Further information on this plan and its implementation on Anglesey is presented in Section 6.
The main local plans and policies that have informed the Plan [Only Anglesey plans listed here] are:
A single Integrated Plan for Anglesey and Gwynedd Strengthening Communities in Gwynedd and Anglesey (2014)
Isle of Anglesey County Council’s Corporate Plan, 2013 – 2017
Anglesey Economic Regeneration Strategy (2004 – 2015)
Anglesey Energy Island Programme
1.3 Labour’s Environment Policy
Extracts taken from “The Green Transformation: labour’s Environment Policy”
1.3.1 Three Labour environmental priorities
Preventing dangerous climate change and adapting to existing climate change
Achieving high air and water quality
Reversing the decline of biodiversity and protecting natural habitats
1.3.2 Action on farming, fishing, habitats and wildlife management
Labour will (this list is not complete, only those relevant to this document are included):
Reconfigure funds for farming and fishing to support sustainable practices, smaller traders, local economies and community benefits
Embed and enhance in policy the responsibility for farmers to conserve, enhance and create safe habitats for birds, insects and other wild animals, and encourage the growth of wildflowers
Issue new guidance to end the use of antibiotics for routine, preventative purposes with farm animals. Anti-microbial resistance is becoming an increasing problem leading to antibiotics being less effective
Establish a science innovation fund to promote the most sustainable forms of farming and fishing, with support earmarked for our small-scale fishing fleet
Review the allocation of UK fishing quota to promote the most sustainable fishing practices, in a way that benefits coastal communities and the small-scale fishing fleet
Protect habitats and species in the ‘blue belts’ of the seas and oceans surrounding the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and consult on the creation of National Marine Parks around the UK
Set guiding targets for plastic bottle deposit schemes, working with food manufacturers and retailers to reduce waste
Initiate a large tree planting programme, working with farmers and foresters to promote biodiversity and better flood prevention
End rotational heather burning and launch an independent review into the economic, environmental and wildlife impacts of driven grouse shooting
2. The current state of the natural environment on Anglesey
Note: The following text, maps, etc. are taken from a report by Natural Resources Wales for the Public Service Board, entitled “Environmental Information for the Well-being Assessment”
The report covers
1. Managing our waters (discussed in Section 2.1 below)
2. The risk from flooding (discussed in Section 2.2 below)
3. The diversity of our landscapes
4. The resilience of ecosystems (discussed in Section 2.3 below)
5. Managing our seas and coast (discussed in Section 2.3 below)
6. Forests, woods and trees (Discussed in Section 2.4 below)
7. Our Greenspaces (discussed in Section 2.4 below)
8. Recreation, access and tourism (discussed in Section 2.5 below)
9. Soils and agriculture
10. NRW land ownership and management
2.1 River, lake, beach and sea water quality
The EU Water Framework Directive requires the water quality/quantity of our rivers, lakes, estuaries, groundwater and coastline is assessed using ecological (fish, invertebrates, plants etc.) and chemical (nutrients, pesticides, etc.) monitoring. Our waterbodies are assigned a status of health which is represented by colours on the map (Figure 2.1). Water bodies that are classified as ‘Bad’, ‘Poor’ or ‘Moderate’ are failing the EU Water Framework Directive standards and these waterbodies will need to improve to at least ‘Good’ ecological status by 2027.
Drinking water: Anglesey’s Cefni and Alaw reservoirs are the island’s main sources of water, augmented from the mainland Cwellyn Reservoir. All available water in these reservoirs is fully committed for public water supply. This means that careful consideration is needed when planning or considering new developments or industry to ensure water is available.
River and small lake pollution: Anglesey is dominated by small coastal river catchments. Discharges of acidic metal rich mine water from the abandoned metal mine at Parys Mountain have a significant impact on the Afon Goch at Amlwch and Dulas. Nutrient enrichment, particularly by phosphorus, affects some of the lakes and rivers on the island, including Llyn Dinam, Llyn Coron, Afon Goch Dulas and the Afon Wygr. This can cause excessive algal growth, affecting other water uses such as angling, wildlife conservation and livestock watering. Agricultural land management, and discharges from wastewater treatment and septic tanks are contributory sources. Land spreading of waste has also been a factor, and there are several large scale intensive agricultural units on the island which have routinely disposed of waste in this way.
Bathing water: The majority of the bathing beaches around the island are excellent with only Cemaes having a problem in 2015 – evidence is being collated to work out if it was a one off problem. In addition, work is underway to reduce bacteria from agriculture and waste water treatment such as septic tanks, sewers and sewage treatment works to help improve bathing water quality at Cemaes.
Figure 2.1. River, lake and sea water quality. Water bodies that are classified under the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) as ‘Bad’, ‘Poor’ or ‘Moderate’ are failing the EU Water Framework Directive standards.
2.2 The risk from flooding
NRW are responsible for managing flood risk from the sea and main rivers. On Anglesey there are 971 at risk properties in 4 areas within the extreme flood outline (EFO). NRW provides a direct warning service to 273 properties which means that not all properties within these areas are signed up to the Flood Warning Service. NRW are currently investigating flood improvement opportunities within two areas that are high on our communities at risk register and are engaging with Beaumaris Town council on the development of their community flood plan.
Due to climate change, winter rainfall in Wales is projected to increase by an average of about 14% by the 2050s. Flooding will therefore continue to be a key threat to many communities. Planning policy related to coastal flooding is described in Section 6.1, including management plans for the four areas most at risk.
Anglesey Flood Map:
This map (Figure 2.2) shows the different flood risk level if there were no flood defences. These are:
Flood Zone 3 – High Probability of flooding. Land assessed as having a greater than 1% probability of flooding (or from the sea of greater than 0.5%) in any year.
Flood Zone 2 – Medium probability of flooding 1% – 0.1%, or annual probability of sea flooding (0.5% – 0.1%) in any year.
Flood Zone 1. – Flooding unlikely Areas without blue shading are unlikely to be flooded by rivers and very unlikely to be flooded by the sea. In these areas there is less than a 0.1 per cent (1 in 1000) chance of flooding occurring each year.
The traffic light coloured shading on the map also shows the likely severity of flooding should it occur –green is low risk and red the worst. The severity is based on the number of properties within the community likely to be affected.
Figure 2.2: Flood risk on Anglesey. Flood zones 2 and 3 have a medium and high probability of flooding, respectively, whilst the severity score reflects the number of communities affected (green is low risk, red is high risk).
2.3 Designated and protected areas for nature
Anglesey has a wealth of designated and protected sites from marine, coastal, marshland, estuary, heathland and woodland e.g. Anglesey fens, South Stack, Newborough.
Figure 2.3 shows the areas of designated, or ‘special’ wildlife sites on Anglesey. There are several types of designations both local, national and international – these are described in Section 4.2 in relation to the planning policy for Wales. Many of these overlap but the basic, fundamental building block of designated sites under UK law is the Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protected Areas are international designations. In most cases such sites are privately owned and have a multi-functional land use e.g. livestock grazing. Connectivity is the degree to which wildlife can move in the landscape, and is important for it to survive and adapt to change. Figure 2.3 shows where connectivity (blue areas) is likely to be relatively high for a wide range of wildlife, and reflects the extent and diversity of wildlife habitats in the landscape.
Anglesey is surrounded by six Marine Character Areas (MCA), these are: Caernarfon Bay MCA, Holy Island West & Penrhos Bay MCA, Holyhead Bay & the Skerries MCA, North Anglesey Coastal Waters MCA, Red Wharf & Conwy Bay MCA, and the Menai Strait MCA. Figure 2.4 shows the designated areas around the coast of Anglesey. There are several types of statutory designations both local, national and international. Together they form a network of marine protected areas. These sites are crucial in supporting a healthy and resilient environment in Wales. There are additional designations in some areas that relate to economically significant shellfish species.
Heritage coasts have been established in some areas to conserve, protect and enhance areas of undeveloped coast. Although this is not a statutory designation, it must be considered in local development planning.
Figure 2.3. The areas of designated wildlife sites on Anglesey. Ramsar sites are protected wetland sites under an international treaty. Blue areas show where connectivity between wildlife habitats is high, allowing wildlife to move between sites.
Figure 2.4. The designated areas around the coast of Anglesey.
Biodiversity is protected in the designated areas described in the previous section. Whilst biodiversity is high in the coastal areas, there are large areas in central Anglesey where biodiversity is relatively low, mainly reflecting the agricultural use of the land. Figure 2.5 is reproduced from the NRW State of Natural Resources Report, 2016 (SoNaRR, https://naturalresources.wales/evidence-and-data/research-and-reports/the-state-of-natural-resources-report-assessment-of-the-sustainable-management-of-natural-resources/?lang=en). It shows the Shannon diversity index which is commonly used to characterize species diversity in a community and accounts for both abundance and evenness of the species present. The higher the value, the higher the biodiversity. The term “semi-natural vegetation” is used in this context because there are very few areas of natural vegetation remaining in Europe that have not been influenced in any way by human-related activities such as grazing, land drainage, farming or industrialisation. Seen together with Figure 2.3, the lack of connectivity between designated areas for nature and the low biodiversity over much of central Anglesey should be addressed.
Figure 2.5 Habitat diversity of the land surface of North Wales on a 1km2 basis. Data are derived from the Habitat of Wales Survey, to which the Shannon Index (a standard measure of ecological diversity) has been applied: higher values mean higher biodiversity. From the 2016 SoNaRR Report.
The county has a low amount of woodland cover, only 4.3% (compared to a Wales average of 14%) and is characterised by small copses, shelterbelts and blocks of farm woodland (Figure 2.6). There are also the larger forests of Newborough, Cefni and Pentraeth, but without these the woodland cover would be even less of the total percentage. Both Newborough and Pentraeth have high recreation interests and Newborough in particular has one of the most significant red squirrel populations in the UK. Newborough forest was planted on the dune system that has subsequently been notified as internationally important (Special Area of Conservation (SAC)).
There is currently a lack of available land for further forest planting resulting in little economic incentive to plant and manage woodlands and subsequent low contractor base. The ability of our woodlands to provide a range of social, environmental & economic benefits is not being realised due to their poor condition, small size and fragmented nature (particularly broadleaved woodland). Restoring, expanding and improving the condition of our woods is key to realising these benefits. Varying the tree species, genetic diversity and management systems we use is the key to making our larger commercial woodlands more adapted and resilient to future changes.
Therefore, if we want to realise the benefits that woodland & trees provide – we need to: create more new woodlands which can both produce timber and deliver community and biodiversity benefits; bring more woodlands into active management; use more locally produced wood products in construction and in our homes – this will help drive demand and increase woodland management; get people out into the woods to enjoy them.
Figure 2.6. The extent of woodland on Anglesey. Woodland covers only 4.3% of Anglesey and is characterised by small copses, shelterbelts and blocs of farmland.
2.5 Greenspaces, recreation, tourism
Outdoor recreation can make a significant contribution to the physical health and mental well-being of the population in Wales: increasing levels of physical activity has beneficial consequences in terms of increasing peoples’ healthy lifespans and reducing the incidence of chronic disease, including cardiovascular disease, some cancers, type II diabetes and osteoporosis. However, there appear to be poor links to, and networks of, greenspaces in central Anglesey. This reduces access to, and use of, local greenspaces by the people who need it most. There is a big potential, and need, for increasing access to greenspace around Holyhead, Llangefni and Amlwch in particular that could positively contribute to addressing this issue. Community engagement is key.
On Anglesey there are over a 1,000 kilometres of public rights of way, of which over 200 kilometres form part of the Wales Coast Path (Figure 2.7). There are also over 2,000 hectares of open access land, of which over 800 hectares is managed by NRW as woodland, with further large areas of accessible land in the Anglesey National Nature Reserve sites. NRW managed land includes Newborough, where there is high pressure from visitor numbers which can conflict with our other responsibilities and incurs significant maintenance costs.
Across Anglesey there is a lack of dedicated safe areas for certain types of activity like horseriding and recreational cycling and NRW provide support for the development of the Rights of Way Improvement Plan. NRW also supports an AONB work programme, which includes a volunteer element and the Wales Coast Path Project is funded by NRW.
3. Implementation on Anglesey of the Well-being of Future Generations (Wales) Act, 2015
3.1 Introduction to the Act and requirements for IACC
The evidence presented in SoNaRR (The State of Natural Resources Report (SoNaRR; www.naturalresources.wales/sonarr) is informing the well-being assessments being prepared by Public Service Boards (PSBs) as part of the requirements of the Well-being of Future Generations (Wales) Act (2015). This Act is about improving the social, economic, environmental and cultural well-being of Wales. It ensures that Public Bodies (including Isle of Anglesey County Council, IACC) take a joined up approach to long-term, sustainable ways of working with people and communities that take into account any potential future impacts on people in Wales. The Act expects Public Bodies to:
work together better
involve people reflecting the diversity of our communities
look to the long term as well as focusing on now
take action to try and stop problems getting worse – or even stop them happening in the first place.
The Act establishes a statutory Future Generations Commissioner for Wales and Public Services Boards (PSBs) for each local authority area in Wales. Each PSB must improve the economic, social, environmental and cultural well-being of its area by working to achieve the well-being goals. Their tasks must include:
Setting and publishing objectives (“well-being objectives”) that are designed to maximise its contribution to achieving each of the well-being goals, and
Taking all reasonable steps (in exercising its functions) to meet those objectives.
The Act defines the sustainable management of natural resources as:
…using natural resources in a way and at a rate that maintains and enhances the resilience of ecosystems and the benefits they provide. In doing so, meeting the needs of current generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs, and contributing to the achievement of the well-being goals set out in the Well-being of Future Generations Act.
The Future Generation Act sets out 7 goals (Figure 3.1), aiming to achieve a prosperous, resilient, healthier more equal Wales with cohesive communities, a vibrant Welsh culture and thriving Welsh language that is globally responsible. To apply the sustainable development principle, PSBs need to think long-term, prevent problems occurring or worsening; consider integration across objectives and public bodies; act in collaboration; and involve local people.
National indicators and milestones have been set enabling progress to be quantified quantitatively or qualitatively that can be measured for the whole of or any part of Wales.
Requirement to monitor Under the Well-being of Future Generations (Wales) Act 2015, the Welsh Ministers must publish indicators (“national indicators”) that must be applied for the purpose of is expressed as a value or characteristic that can be measured quantitatively or qualitatively against a particular outcome. 46 national Indicators have been defined. Those relevant to the environment, and their associated number, are:
4. Levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution in the air.
12. Capacity (in MW) of renewable energy equipment installed.
13. Concentration of carbon and organic matter in soil.
14. The Ecological Footprint of Wales.
15. Amount of waste generated that is not recycled, per person.
32. Number of properties (homes and businesses) at medium or high risk of flooding from rivers and the sea.
33. Percentage of dwellings with adequate energy performance.
41. Emissions of greenhouse gases within Wales.
42. Emissions of greenhouse gases attributed to the consumption of global goods and services in Wales.
43. Areas of healthy ecosystems in Wales.
44. Status of Biological diversity in Wales.
45. Percentage of surface water bodies, and groundwater bodies, achieving good or high overall status.
Figure 3.1: The seven goals of the Well-being of Future Generation Act (2015).
The Act establishes Public Services Boards (PSBs) for each local authority area in Wales. The Members of each Public Services Board must include:
The local authority;
The Local Health Board for an area any part of which falls within the local authority area;
The Welsh Fire and Rescue Authority for an area any part of which falls within the local authority area;
The Natural Resources body for Wales
Other invited people as appropriate, including representatives of voluntary organisations
Annual: Progress reports for the well-bring objectives and current state of indicators
Public Services Board: May 2018 – local well-being plan published; July 2019 Annual Progress Report
3.2 Progress with implementation on Anglesey
3.2.1 Anglesey and Gwynedd Public Services Board
For Gwynedd and Anglesey, both Boards have decided to work together, and it is a partnership that includes the main public sector organisations in the region. The minutes of the meetings are not up to date on the IACC web-page (most recent being 24th February, 2017), but are more up to date (most recent being 5 July, 2018) at: https://www.llesiantgwyneddamon.org/en/Amdanom/Papurau-Bwrdd/
There have been two main tasks completed so far, discussed below:
Collation and analysis of local well-being data for 14 areas of Gwynedd and Anglesey (6 for Anglesey), and reporting of results.
Setting of objectives and a Well-being Plan for the two counties
The Gwynedd and Anglesey Public Services Board, the statutory members are: Gwynedd Council and the Isle of Anglesey County Council; Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board; North Wales Fire and Rescue Authority; Natural Resources Wales.
As well as the statutory members, the Board has invited the following organisations as guest members: Welsh Government; North Wales Police; Public Health Wales; North Wales Police and Crime Commissioner; Snowdonia National Park Authority; Mantell Gwynedd; Medrwn Mon; Wales Probation Service; Bangor University; Cartrefi Cymunedol Gwynedd; Grŵp Llandrillo Menai
Other bodies/organisations/ partners may be asked to sit on the Gwynedd and Anglesey Public Services Board in the future, as needed.
3.3 Anglesey Well-being Assessment, 2017
3.3.1 How the assessment was conducted
From the report: “Twelve public drop-in sessions were then organised, two in each of the six areas, to give residents the opportunity to discuss their views and to help us gather further information. We asked if they recognised their area from the information in the booklets, what was important to them, and what they like about their community as well as what needs improving. We also asked about well-being – what’s important to their well-being and to the well-being of their community. We tried to ensure that we heard different voices from across the area – we visited schools and met with community groups. There were also regional discussions with harder to reach groups. A social media campaign and articles in the local print media and on partners’ websites also publicised the assessment and encouraged residents to complete the on-line questionnaires relating to their areas. To try and understand what’s important to the people of Anglesey, we asked them just that at the public sessions and in the online questionnaire at the end of 2016.”
Observations on methodology used: Whilst the aims for the survey were in full agreement with the requirements of the FG Act, it proved difficult for those conducting the survey to gain the views of a fully representative population, despite their stated approaches to all parts of the community. Only 214 people completed the survey (see Figure 3.2 for breakdown by gender, age and area), with only 19 people responding in the Talybolion area and 24 in Caergybi and Ynys Cybi. Participants were given text boxes to complete and were allowed to provide up to 3 answers for most questions. This made comparison of results across areas and even between participants difficult to quantify, as arbitrary decisions had to be made on grouping of answers that seemed to differ between the areas. Data for three of the questions were analysed for the CLP based on the proportion of sum of the responses for each category, even though not every person provided three answers to each question. With these caveats in mind, the data for each of the six areas of Anglesey (indicated in Figure 3.3) were extracted from the relevant documents and analysed as indicated in the next section.
In addition to the analysis presented here for the CLP, further information on the 6 area plans and results of each survey for Anglesey (with the areas indicated in Figure 3.3), can be found at:
Figure 3.2: Respondents in the Anglesey Well-being Survey, by area, age and gender (Other*, think of yourself in a different way).
- Bro Aberffraw & Bro Rhosyr Area
- Aethwy & Seiriol Area
- Lligwy & Twrcelyn Area
- Canolbarth Môn & Llifon Area
- Talybolion Area
- Caergybi & Ynys Cybi Area
Figure 3.3: Division of Anglesey into 6 areas for the Well-being Assessment
3.3.2 Summary of outcomes, as presented in the report
The Well-being Assessment for Anglesey includes the following summary of responses to three of the questions:
WHAT MAKES YOUR AREA A GOOD PLACE TO LIVE?
• The natural environment including the beaches
• Community spirit and good neighbours
• Peace and quiet
• Local facilities
• Low crime rates and feeling safe
WHAT’S NOT SO GOOD?
• Appearance of the streets
• Not enough public facilities
• Public transport
• Road safety and traffic
• Lack of professional and quality jobs
WHAT WOULD YOU CHANGE ABOUT YOUR AREA TO MAKE IT A BETTER PLACE TO LIVE?
• More opportunities to socialise in the community
• Improve the appearance of the streets
• Improve public transport connections
• Improve road safety and footpaths
3.3.4 Analysis of survey data for the CLP
The raw data were analysed for the CLP to determine the following:
On what basis are these statements made?
Are there particular likes and concerns that could be used in future IACC/Labour Party CLP policy development? (see also, Section 8)
Do these differ across the six areas of Anglesey?
Q. What makes Anglesey a good place to live?
Answers to this question fell into 25 categories and totalled 528. Across the island, 32% of respondents commented that the natural environment, including the landscape and views made the area a good place to live (Figure 3.4). This shows the importance people give to protecting our natural environment. The next highest categories were the community spirit/neighbours (18%), peace and quiet (12%), local facilities (9%) and the low crime rate (7%). These five categories tally with those listed in the report as the five most important aspects for Anglesey residents (Section 3.3.2).
Figure 3.4: Responses to the question, what makes Anglesey a nice place to live? Up to three text responses were permitted per respondent. 644 responses were made.
Analysis by area
Keeping in mind the caveats described above about the representativeness of the respondents, breakdown of the responses by area is provided in Figure 3.5, and indicated that:
The natural environment (landscape/views) was the most important aspect in 5 of the 6 areas, with Canolbarth Môn and Llifon, placing community spirit/neighbours higher than the natural environment (22% compared to 19% of responses).
Community spirit/neighbours was second or third in priority in the remaining 5 areas.
“Quiet” was the 2nd or 3rd most important factor in Aberffraw and Rhosyr, Lligwy and Twrdelyn, Caergybi and Ynys Cybi and Talybolion, but not ranked as one of the top 6 features in Aethwy and Seiriol.
Feeling safe/low crime rate was in the top 6 for all areas
Local facilities was fourth or fifth in most areas but ranked third in Canolbath Môn and Llifon
Transport links was second on the list for Aethwy and Seiriol and fourth for Aberffaw and Rhosyr, but not in the top 6 for the other areas.
Welsh language and culture was mentioned in less than 10% of responses for all areas, with the highest score of 8% being for Canolbath Môn and Llifon
Anglesey residents in Lligwy and Twrcelyn, and Talybolion also ranked Fresh air within the 6 highest responses, but because of the small sample size, this was only actually mentioned in 4 and 3 responses, respectively.
Figure 3.5. Area responses to the question: Note up to 3 things that makes your area a nice place to live. Data are presented as a percentage of responses per area, with the 6 highest ranking responses shown.
Q. What is less good about living in your area?
There were 585 responses to the question “Note up to 3 things that are not as good about living in your area”, breaking down into 49 themes. With so many different answers, inevitably the proportion of responses for each of the most popular themes is relatively low. Selecting all of those responses that make up at least 5% of the data for at least one area, and producing an average based on the totals for Anglesey, showed that issues related to litter and waste collection were of greatest concern (12% of responses, Figure 3.6). Less than 10% of respondents indicated concerns about road/traffic safety (9%), lack of public facilities (8%) and poor public transport (8%). The other three categories featuring in 5% or more of responses per area were lack of jobs and support for small businesses, distances from services and lack of planning control leading to destruction of the landscape. The first five items on this list were identified in the Anglesey Well-being Report as being of highest concern for Anglesey residents.
Figure 3.6: Responses to the question, what is not so good about living in your area? Up to three text responses were permitted per respondent. 585 responses were made.
Analysis by area
Although interpretation of this data is also subject to the caveats described above, some clearer signals emerged about what is most important to people in the different areas of Anglesey (Figure 3.7). In summary, the following were found:
In the more rural areas (Talybolion, Lligwy and Twrcelyn), distance from services (hospital, nearest town, facilities) was mentioned by the highest proportion of residents (22 and 19% of responses).
Road/traffic safety was the most important in Aethwy and Seriol, and Aberfraw & Rhosyr, and was in the top four responses in Talybolion and Canolbath Môn and Llifon.
Issues related to litter and fly tipping were of greatest concern in Canolbath Môn and Llifon (17%), and were third most important in all other areas.
Insufficient public services was the second most important factor in Talybolion, Caergybi and Ynys Cybi, and Aberffraw and Rhosyr, 5th in Aethwy and Seiriol, but not in the top 6 responses for the other 3 areas.
Lack of jobs/support for small businesses was the second most important concern for Aethwy and Seiriol, and was in the top 6 for most other areas, except Talybolion and Aberffraw and Rhosyr.
Respondents from Canolbath Môn and Llifon (11%) and Lligwy and Tewrcelyn (6%) were concerned about the decline of shops in the town centres.
Respondents from Lligwy and Twrcelyn placed second on the list concerns related to development of the new nuclear power site, pylons, wind turbines and quarries (8%).
Poor public transport was in the top six categories for all 6 areas (6-9% of respondents).
Also featuring in the top 6, usually 5th or 6th on the list were a lack of planning control, noise pollution, lack of integration between Welsh and English/decline of Welsh language, and antisocial behaviour.
Figure 3.7: Area responses to the question “Note up to 3 things that are not as good about living in your area”. Data are presented as a percentage of responses per area, with the 6 highest ranking responses shown.
Q. What would you change about your area to make it a nicer place to live?
Respondents to the survey made 244 suggestions for improvements, covering 41 subjects. This is a relatively small number of responses for analysis of the data, making it hard to draw firm conclusions, especially at the area level. Picking out all responses that were identified by at least 5% of respondents in any area (Figure 3.8), the highest proportion suggested that developing more meeting places in the community would be advantageous (12% of respondents mentioned this, Figure 3.8). Improving the area for tourists by having more shops and improved beach facilities/cleaner beaches was the second choice (9%), Tidying up the area including reducing litter, fly tipping and planting more flowers together with and increased focus on road and pedestrian safety were 3rd and 4th choices. Respondents also suggested avoiding inappropriate developments, improving transport links (road and public) and reducing anti-social behaviour within the top 7 responses across Anglesey. The four suggestions identified as most important in the Anglesey Well-being report did not fully reflect these results as “more shops, better beaches to attract tourists” was omitted and replaced by “Better transport links/train service”.
Figure 3.8: Responses to the question, what would you change to make it nicer? Up to three text responses were permitted per respondent. 244 responses were made.
Results by area
The sample sizes were very small for this question – only 17 suggestions from 39 participants (Aethwy and Seiriol) and 17 from 19 respondents in Talybolion, with the highest number of responses being 65 from 49 respondents in Canolbath Môn and Llifon. Data for Aethwy and Seiriol, and Talybolion are presented in Figure 3.9 but are not discussed here due to the small sample size.
In each area, different priority suggestions were made:
In Caergybi and Ynys Cybi, the highest proportions of response were on the theme of preventing approval of inappropriate developments (26% of responses), increasing job opportunities and support for small businesses (13%) and reducing littering (13%).
Aberffraw and Rhosyr residents gave equal preference to developing meeting places in the community and increased focus on road and pedestrian safety (16%), with encouraging Welsh speaking and better integration of English and Welsh speakers being their third highest suggestion (12%).
In Lligwy and Twrcelyn, over a quarter of responses were related to having more shops and improved beaches for tourists (28%), with developing meeting places in the community being second (15%) and reducing anti-social behaviour being the third highest ranking suggestion (9%).
Suggestions in Canolbath Môn and Llifon were relatively evenly spread for the top 6 responses, ranging from an equal proportion suggesting fewer second homes and more shops and better beaches to attract tourists (8% each), to more efforts to reduce fly tipping and litter (11%). Interestingly, the second highest suggestion was to not change anything in the area (9%).
Figure 3.9: Area responses to the question “What would you change about your area to make it a nicer place to live?” Data are presented as a percentage of responses per area, with the 6 highest ranking responses shown.
3.4 Gwynedd and Anglesey Well-being Plan, 2018
3.4.1 Establishing nine well-being objectives
Quoted from the report:
“The assessment was a starting point – an overview of well-being to accompany the area booklets which gave the Public Services Board a better understanding of Gwynedd and Anglesey.
Having considered the data and the views of local people, the Board concluded that the key messages of the assessment were as follows. These form the Nine Well-being Objectives for Gwynedd and Anglesey:
1. The need to maintain a healthy community spirit
2. The importance of protecting the natural environment
3. Understanding the effect of demographic changes
4. Protecting and promoting the Welsh language
5. Promoting the use of natural resources to improve health and well-being in the long-term
6. Improving transport links to enable access to services and facilities
7. The need for good quality jobs and affordable homes for local people
8. The effect of poverty on well-being
9. Ensuring an opportunity for every child to succeed”
“With nine main messages highlighted in the Well-being Assessment, a series of workshops were held throughout the summer of 2017 in order to listen to views about which areas to prioritise. The workshops were open to public bodies, the third sector, town and community councils and community groups.
Eighteen workshops were held in total, two for each of the messages.
The workshop looked at each one from the perspective of: a) ambition b) the Board’s influence c) confirming whether the message should be a well-being goal d) how Board members should work together to make a difference to residents
A summary of the responses was submitted to the Public Services Board and it was decided which areas should be prioritised for this Well-being Plan.”
3.4.2. Six priority well-being areas, identified by the PSB
These have been grouped under two objectives:
Communities which thrive and are prosperous in the long-term
Healthy and independent residents with a good quality of life
Note: Text was taken from the plan and drawn together into the table on the next page
3.4.3 The next steps for the PSB
Text from the Plan:
“The Well-being Plan is a live document which will change and develop over time. Although the wellbeing objectives and the priority areas have been set out here, this is an overview of what we intend to do. Further work will be carried out to develop specific work programmes.
The next step will be to draw-up detailed work programmes and identify Short, Medium and
Long-Term actions for the six priority areas.
The Board’s work will be regularly monitored by the Scrutiny Committees of Gwynedd Council and the Isle of Anglesey County Council. An annual report on the progress of this plan will also be produced.
Members of the public have had the opportunity to share their views throughout the process of the
developing the Well-being Plan. Many comments and points received have been incorporated into the final plan. Some matters identified have not been included as yet, however, we will be addressing these over the coming year.
Although the formal consultation period has now ended we are still keen to hear your views.
To have your say, or if you would like to receive more information about the Gwynedd and
Anglesey Public Services Board, please visit www.llesiantgwyneddamon.org.”
The Gwynedd and Anglesey Public Services Board will operate in line with five national sustainable development principles and two that have been have added by the Board locally. These are on the themes of the Welsh language; equality (in relation to deprived communities); long-term (includes monitoring of progress); prevention (of issues from developing); collaboration (within the board, across CCs); integration (across the CCS where efficient to do so); and involvement (of residents and communities when planning services).
4. Implementation of ‘Planning Policy Wales’ on Anglesey
Planning Policy Wales (PPW) sets out the land use planning policies of the Welsh Government and provides the context for land use planning in Wales. It is supplemented by a series of Technical Advice Notes (TANs) and policy clarification letters. PPW, the TANs and policy clarification letters comprise national planning policy. National planning policy should be taken into account in the preparation of all tiers of development plan. PPW will sit alongside the National Development Framework (NDF) which will set out where nationally important growth and infrastructure is needed and how the planning system at a national, regional and local level can deliver it by providing direction for Strategic Development Plans (SDPs) and Local Development Plans (LDPs).
Some extracts from the PPW (Edition 10, draft) of specific relevance to Anglesey are included here, please see section 5 (p 113 – 149) of Planning Policy Wales for full details.
4.1 Natural and Distinctive Places
The Natural and Distinctive Places theme of planning policy topics covers: landscape, historic environment, biodiversity and habitats, coastal characteristics, air quality, soundscape, water services, flooding and other environmental (surface and sub-surface) risks.
5.19 Desired Natural and Distinctive outcomes will be based on sustaining and creating places in which:
The role which landscapes, the historic environment, habitats and biodiversity, the characteristics of coastal, rural or urban environments play in contributing to Natural and Distinctive places are identified, understood, valued, protected and enhanced;
Sites designated for their landscape or nature conservation importance are fully considered and their special characteristics and features protected and enhanced, whilst the network of sites of should be recognised as being at the heart of improving the resilience of ecosystems.
Opportunities in all areas to improve the resilience of ecosystems are taken by addressing building on floodplains, diffuse pollution, soil compaction and sealing and improving approaches to coastal flood defence in urban areas and coastal margins;
Opportunities, particularly in urban areas, to improve health and wellbeing are taken, in particular to reduce average levels of airborne pollution, secure sustainable drainage systems, ensure water sensitive design, address soil carbon management and secure access to informal spaces for recreation through green infrastructure provision so as to improve capacity for adaptability to the challenges of climate change, such as flood risk and increased temperatures; and
Support development which contributes positively to an area and addresses environmental risks which constrain potential and impact adversely on communities and the natural and built environment by using previously developed land or existing buildings and taking opportunities to ‘clean up’ land and address dereliction, where this is informed by and respectful of the historic and natural environment.
5.26 AONBs: Planning authorities should give great weight to conserving and enhancing the natural beauty of AONBs, and should have regard to the wildlife, cultural heritage and economic and social well-being of the areas.
5.29 In National Parks or AONBs [note – given equal status under a different point], special considerations apply to major development proposals which are more national9 than local in character……. Consideration of applications for major developments should therefore include an assessment of:
the need for the development, in terms of national considerations, and the impact of permitting it or refusing it upon the local economy;
the cost of and scope for providing the development outside the designated area or meeting the need for it in some other way; and
any detrimental effect on the environment and the landscape, and the extent to which that could be moderated.
5.42 The planning system has a key role to play in helping to reverse the decline in biodiversity and increasing the resilience of ecosystems, at various scales, by ensuring appropriate mechanisms are in place to both protect against loss and to secure enhancement. Addressing the consequences of climate change should be a central part of any measures to conserve biodiversity and the resilience of ecosystems. Information contained in SoNaRR and Area Statements should be taken into account. Development plan strategies, policies and individual development proposals must take into account the need to:
promote the conservation of biodiversity, in particular the conservation of wildlife and habitats;
ensure action in Wales contributes to meeting international responsibilities and obligations for biodiversity and habitats;
ensure statutorily designated sites are properly protected and managed;
safeguard protected species; and existing biodiversity assets from impacts which directly affect their nature conservation interests and compromise the resilience of ecological networks and the components which underpin them, such as water and soil; and
seek enhancement of and improvements to ecosystem resilience by improving diversity, condition, extent and connectivity of ecological networks.
4.2 Biodiversity and Resilience of Ecosystems Duty
Note: Also see Section 5.3 of this document, in relation to the requirements of the Environment Act.
5.44 Planning authorities must seek to maintain and enhance biodiversity in the exercise of their functions. Planning authorities must also take account of and promote the resilience of ecosystems, in particular the following aspects:
a) Diversity between and within ecosystems;
b) The connections between and within ecosystems;
c) The scale of ecosystems;
d) The condition of ecosystems (including their structure and functioning); and
e) The adaptability of ecosystems.
5.45 In fulfilling this duty, planning authorities must have regard to:
a) The list of habitats of principal importance for Wales, published under Section 7 of the Environment (Wales) Act 2016;
b) The State of Natural Resources Report (SoNaRR), published by NRW; and
c) Any Area Statement that covers all or part of the area in which the authority exercises its functions.
5.46 A proactive approach towards facilitating the delivery of biodiversity and resilience outcomes should be taken by all those participating in the planning process….
4.3 Green Infrastructure Assessments
5.70 Planning authorities should adopt a strategic and proactive approach to green infrastructure and biodiversity by producing up to date inventories and maps of existing green infrastructure and ecological assets and networks….
5.71 The Green Infrastructure Assessment should be used to develop a robust approach to enhancing biodiversity, increasing ecological resilience and improving wellbeing outcomes, and should identify key strategic opportunities where the restoration, maintenance, creation or connection of green features and functions would deliver the most significant benefits.
5.72 ….The Green Infrastructure Assessment should also be given early consideration in development proposals, and inform the implementation of project proposals.
5.73 It is important that the Green Infrastructure Assessment be regularly reviewed to ensure that information on habitats, species and other green features and resources is kept up-to-date…
5. Wales Environment Act, 2016 – implications for Anglesey
The following text has been taken from or summarised from: https://gov.wales/topics/environmentcountryside/consmanagement/natural-resources-management/environment-act/?lang=en
And associated documents.
5.1 Background information
In Wales, our nature, land, water and air are our ultimate resource. But, demands on these natural
resources are increasing and one of the greatest challenges we face is to find a way to secure
healthy, resilient and productive ecosystems for the future whilst still meeting the challenges of
creating jobs, housing and infrastructure. The Environment Act helps us to meet this challenge.
Information relevant to natural resources is provided below.
This Act complements the well-being of Future Generations Act and the Planning Wales Act as shown in the figure below. “For Wales to develop sustainably, we need to change the law to put in place the key elements that will enable it to happen:
A clear idea of what we are aiming for and an undertaking of the key principles that guide us;
A clear picture of the natural resources we have, the risks they face and the opportunities they provide; and,
An efficient process that ensures the right development is located in the right place to make it happen.”
5.1.2 Managing our natural resources in a sustainable way
Sustainable management of natural resources is about managing these resources in a joined up
way that delivers real outcomes for the environment, people, the economy and our communities.
Our aim is to make the most of the opportunities that Wales’ natural resources present while
safeguarding and building the resilience of natural systems to continue to provide these benefits
over the long term.
Central to the Act is the need to adopt a new, more integrated approach to managing our natural
resources in order to achieve long-term sustainability. The Act provides an iterative framework that ensures that managing our natural resources sustainably will be a core consideration in decision-making.
• The State of Natural Resources Report – Natural Resources Wales (NRW) must produce a
report that gives an assessment of natural resources and how well we’re doing to manage
them in a sustainable way.
• A National Natural Resources Policy – the Welsh Government must produce a national
policy that sets out the priorities, risks and opportunities for managing our natural resources
sustainably. The policy will take into account the findings of the State of Natural Resources
• Area statements – NRW will produce a local evidence base, which helps to implement the
priorities, risks and opportunities identified in the National Policy and how NRW intends to
address these. The North West Wales Area Statement covers Conwy, Gwynedd and Anglesey. To get involved, see: https://naturalresources.wales/about-us/area-statements/north-west-wales-area-statement/?lang=en.
The Act also provides NRW with new tools to help manage our natural resources sustainably.
Land management agreements allow NRW to work with landowners to manage their land in a
sustainable way. Experimental schemes allow NRW to trial new ways of working.
A new biodiversity duty included in the Act helps to reverse the decline and secure the long-term
resilience of biodiversity in Wales.
The Act places a duty on Welsh Ministers to set targets for reducing greenhouse emissions and also
to set carbon budgets. This will help to accelerate progress against our headline targets and will
help build resilience in our environment to extreme weather events. Statutory targets and a more
robust governance framework will allow us to better evaluate progress and provide certainty to
help drive investment for a low-carbon Wales.
By June, 2019 a Biodiversity Report (for the Environment Act) is due to be published, outputs from which will feed into the Annual Progress Report for the Wellbeing of Future Generations Act (progress with objectives and assessment of current state of indicators). Further reports will follow every three years.
Also, the Area Statement for NW Wales will feed into the Public Service Board Well-being plans where actions suited to multi-agency delivery will be identified.
Area Statements are currently being developed.
5.3 Biodiversity and Resilience of Ecosystems Duty
Building on the Natural Environment and Rural Communities Act (2006), the Environment Act enhances the duty of “to require all public authorities, when carrying out their functions in Wales, to seek to “maintain and enhance biodiversity” where it is within the proper exercise of their functions. In doing so, public authorities must also seek to promote the resilience of ecosystems.” “This ensures that biodiversity is an integral part of the decisions that public authorities
take in relation to Wales. It also links biodiversity with the long term health and functioning of our ecosystems, therefore helping to align the biodiversity duty with the framework for sustainable natural resource management provided in the Act.”. To assist in complying with the new duties, specified public authorities must also take account of relevant evidence as required under the Act. In addition, these public authorities will also be required to prepare and publish a plan on how they intend to comply with the biodiversity and resilience of ecosystems duty. These public authorities must also review their forward plans in light of the findings in their report on their actions.
5.4 Examples of actions by public authorities for enhancing biodiversity and resilience of ecosystems
The following examples of what public authorities can do to meet this duty are provided in the documents describing the Act, for guidance:
• Reduce, re-use, recycle materials, but where products such as paper are bought, ensure that supplies come from sustainable sources – i.e. paper from sustainable forests;
• Raise awareness across an organisation about how each and every role can impact and influence biodiversity and consider measures to enhance biodiversity and ecosystems in all policies, plans and projects;
• Look for opportunities, whether they are big or small, to help encourage biodiversity – e.g. plant native species, wildflower areas for pollinators, leaving areas of unmown grass; and improving connectivity between valuable habitats;
• Think about how enhancing biodiversity can help deliver across the organisation’s activities .e.g. to support active recreation, education, flood prevention, and local food growing. For example, green roofs help to provide wildlife habitats, reduce energy consumption and improve drainage systems.
5.5 Land management schemes
New powers in the Act allow Natural Resources Wales to enter into voluntary agreements with land owners or other persons about how their land will be managed.
For example, under these agreements a land manager may agree to:
Protect and conserve the flora and fauna of an area i.e. by maintaining hedgerows;
Manage land in a way that may contribute to flood alleviation by planting, maintaining or not felling the trees in a certain area;
Allowing NRW to manage activities (i.e. harvesting woodland) on the land.
To ensure that the land is sustainably managed over the long-term, Natural Resources Wales can bind future owners of the land to the terms of an agreement by registering it with the Land Registry. This means that the terms of the agreement will continue even when the land changes hands. For example, this could provide a level of certainty that the natural flood defence asset, in an area of land and its associated watercourses, will continue to be maintained to a specific standard even if the land is sold or is taken over by a new tenant.
The Act also allows Natural Resources Wales to trial new approaches that can help to:
Develop new management techniques to improve ecosystem resilience;
Assess nature based solutions as a means of addressing specific issues for example the application of peat bogs as a means of flood alleviation;
Develop best practice for general application for a carrying out a specific activity.
5.6 Anglesey’s Local Biodiversity Action Plan
At the Rio summit in 1992 world leaders pledged to fight against wildlife’s extinction and strive to protect the variety of living nature on earth and the Convention on Biological Diversity was signed.
The UK generated the UK Biodiversity Action Plan in response to this agreement. Local Biodiversity Action Plans (LBAP) were adopted at the county level to generate action on the ground and help meet UK targets.
Anglesey’s Local Biodiversity Action Plan was written to help secure partnership work between local people and organisations to ensure these local resources are valued and looked after in the future.
The action plan sets out work to help important habitats and species – it provides details for each habitat on areas/sites on Anglesey; condition; factors causing decline/issues; current action; overall objectives and targets; proposed actions; advisory bodies; research/monitoring; education/awareness; implementation leads and key players; main links with other habitats.
For wildlife in Planning, please see the document “Protected Wildlife and Buildings.”
Note: it doesn’t look like the text on this website has been updated in relation to the requirements of the Environment Act.
6. Isle of Anglesey Joint Local Development Plan, 2011 – 2026 (update, 2017)
Extracts from the following are quoted below:
The Anglesey and Gwynedd Joint Local Development was formally adopted on 31 July 2017 and the majority of decisions on planning applications in the two Planning Authority areas will be based on the contents of the Plan.
The Plan sets out the strategy and aims for development and land use in the area covered by the Anglesey and Gwynedd Planning Authorities and includes policies to implement the strategy and aims over a period of 15 years (2011 to 2026). The Plan will have a significant influence on development of the whole area and individual communities. It provides guidance regarding the location of new houses, employment opportunities, leisure and community facilities and where these will be provided in the area. The Plan will be used to determine which developments will receive permission in the future by the Councils and where.
6.1 Coastal change management
“6.2.41 Local planning authorities should demonstrate that they have considered Shoreline Management Plans, which provide a large-scale assessment of the risks associated with coastal processes, and should provide the primary source of evidence in defining the coastal change management area and inform land allocation within it. The West of Wales Shoreline Management Plan (SMP) 2 sets a range of policies for the coastline, which are ‘hold the line’, ‘no active intervention’ or ‘managed realignment’, per policy epoch. The policy epochs are up to 2025, 2026 to 2055 and 2056 to 2105.” A copy of the SMP 2 can be viewed at: http://www.westofwalessmp.org/content.asp?nav=23&parent_directory_id=10
Planning Policy Wales states that Local Authorities should help reduce the risk of flooding and the impact of coastal erosion by avoiding inappropriate development in vulnerable areas. A Coastal Change Management Area (CChMA) is defined where the accepted shoreline management plan policy is for ‘no active intervention’ or ‘managed realignment’ during the Plan period. The coastal areas included in the CChMA are those where the SMP 2 set a ‘no active intervention’ or ‘managed realignment’ policy approach either up to 2025 or between 2026 and 2055 or both.
6.1.1 Planning policy
POLICY ARNA 1: COASTAL CHANGE MANAGEMENT AREA (Text extracts provided)
New Residential Development Proposals for new dwellings, replacement dwellings, subdivisions of existing buildings to residential use or conversion of existing buildings to residential use will be refused in the CChMA.
Relocation of Existing Permanent Dwellings in the Countryside Proposals for the relocation of existing permanent dwellings in the countryside located in the CChMA predicted to be affected by coastal erosion and/or flood risk will be permitted provided they conform to certain criteria, including: The development replaces a permanent dwelling which is affected or threatened by erosion and/or flood risk within 20 years of the date of the proposal; and 2. The relocated dwelling is located an appropriate distance inland.
New non-residential permanent buildings not associated with an existing use or building will not be permitted in areas within the CChMA predicted as being at risk from coastal change during the first indicative policy epoch up to 2025.
Redevelopment of, or extensions to, existing non-residential property or intensification of existing non-residential land uses on sites within the CChMA, will be permitted where it can be demonstrated …..that there will be no increased risk to life, nor any significant risk to property and subject to a time-limited planning permission (where appropriate) and that the development complies with TAN 15 over the period of its permission.
Extensions to Existing Dwellings, Community Facilities or Services or Infrastructure Proposals for the following types of development will be permitted in the CChMA, subject to a TAN 15 compliant Flood Consequences Assessment or a Stability Assessment: Limited residential extensions; 10. Key community infrastructure; Essential infrastructure, e.g. roads, provided that there are clear plans to manage the impact of coastal change on it, and that it will not have an adverse impact on rates of coastal change elsewhere.
6.1.2 Coastal management plans for Anglesey
Four coastal Change Management Areas have been defined for Anglesey in the West of Wales Shoreline Management Plan 2 (Figure 6.1). Each has a detailed document (circa 30 – 50 pages), describing the scenarios and plans. Below is a map for each of the four areas together with brief extracts from the summary information at the end of each document.
Figure 6.1: The four coastal management zones for Anglesey
Area PDZ16, The Menai Straits
Figure 6.2: Coastal management plans for the Menai Straits
Summary of management recommendations:
Note: Much of the summary text relates to Gwynedd (Afon Ogwen, Afon Aber, Llanfairfechan), but coastal re-alignment is predicted for the Anglesey side of the Menai Straits.
The underpinning intent of the plan is to allow the natural development of the shoreline
over much of the frontage. There would be increasing flood risk to properties in the long
term with sea level rise. It is uncertain whether this could be managed by local resilience
measures and it is anticipated properties may be lost. This will need to be reassessed
as improved information on sea level rise is collated.
PDZ 17. HOLY ISLAND AND WEST ANGLESEY
Figure 6.3: Coastal management plans for Holy island and West Anglesey
Summary of management recommendations:
The area comprises generally a hard rock shoreline, with the dune filled valley of the
Afon Ffraw and the smaller inlet of Porth Trecastell. While there are local management
issues that need to be considered, the overall intent of the plan within this area is to
allow the coast to behave naturally without intervention. At Aberffraw, the intent would be to maintain existing defences initially but with adaptation in the longer term to rising sea levels. Consideration would need to be given to raising the road, potentially as a bridge, rather than increasing the defences to the road; constraining free exchange of water into the upper estuary. At the Quay, future flood risk protection would be provided through improving resilience measures to properties. At Porth Trecastell, there may be the need to relocate the car park and provide protection to the road where overtopping is allowed. The aim of the plan is specifically to support nature conservation and maintain the important landscape, while sustaining the communities and transport system.
PDZ 18. NORTH ANGLESEY
Figure 6.4: Coastal management plans for North Anglesey
Summary of management recommendations:
Much of the shoreline is natural with slowly eroding cliffs. The plan would maintain this
general process. Management is focused on local areas.
The two main settlements are at Porth Llechog and Amlwch. At Porth Llechog, the aim
of the plan would aim to support the village and maintain its important seafront area.
With sea level rise this would mean maintaining the opportunity to realign the existing
defence in epoch 3 to sustain the beach and the overall defence of the frontage.
At Amlwch, the aim would be to maintain defence to the port and associated
development within this local area. The plan highlights the need to consider future
increased wave overtopping and potential flooding in any plans to redevelop the old
chemical works at Trwyn Costog. In addition, consideration would need to be given to
potential risk of contamination due to flooding.
In other areas, the significance of the Porth Wen Brickworks are recognised as an
important aspect of the historic landscape. The plan identifies the need for a
management plan in terms of managing existing dilapidated defences.
At Porth Elian the intent of the plan would be to sustain the existing defences in the
short term but for future management to look to realignment of the road.
PDZ 19. EAST BAYS:
Figure 6.5: Coastal management plans for the East Bays of Anglesey
Summary of management recommendations:
The main areas of concern are identified at Benllech, the northern frontage to Traeth
Coch and the flood risk areas around the Afon Nodwydd. At Benllech, the intent of the plan would be to sustain the road and maintain the important beach area. This is likely to be manageable over the short to medium term but the intent within the plan would be to consider realignment in epoch 3, specifically towards the southern end of the road. The approach to defence may also need to
change in reducing wave overtopping and avoiding the need for excessive raising of the
sea wall. Protection to adjacent property at the northern end of the road would need to
be considered with respect to main aim to sustain the road. Along the Porthllongdy frontage the intent within the plan would be to maintain defence over epochs 1 and 2 but for some realignment in epoch 3 to develop a more sustainable management of access and use of the area. The plan would not preclude local private defence to the north of the main access subject to normal approvals.
In other areas, both between Benllech and Traeth Coch and around the back of the
Traeth Coch inlet, the intent would be to allow natural development of the shoreline with
No Active Intervention. At the Afon Nodwydd, the intent would be to continue to manage
the area but accepting a greater degree of flood risk and reduce reliance on increased
levels of flood defences. This would need to be examined in detail in discussion with the
local community. To the southern part of Traeth Coch and through to Trwyn Penmon the plan would be for No Active intervention.
6.2 Conserving and enhancing the natural environment
A key role of the planning system is to ensure the natural environment is protected effectively by managing the type, design and location of development.
The planning system has an important part to play in meeting biodiversity objectives by promoting approaches to development, which create new opportunities to enhance biodiversity, prevent biodiversity losses, or compensate for losses where damage is unavoidable.
It is important that biodiversity and landscape considerations are taken into account at an early stage in the development plan preparation and the development control process.
The Natural Environment and Rural Communities Act 2006 places a duty on every public authority, in exercising its functions, to have regard, so far as is consistent with the proper exercise of those functions, to the purpose of conserving biodiversity.
Both Councils have prepared Local Biodiversity Action Plans.
Local Authorities have a statutory duty to have regard to the Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty’s (AONB) purposes, which is the conservation and enhancement of their natural beauty.
There is duty to have regard to National Park and AONB purposes applies to activities affecting these areas, whether those activities lie within or outside the designated areas. “
6.2.1 Nature conservation
“6.5.2 Nature Conservation: Habitats and species of principal importance for the purpose of conserving biodiversity are covered under Section 42 (Wales) of the NERC Act (2006). In the Plan area, there are many important biodiversity and geodiversity assets. Numerous sites of international importance have been designated as Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protection Areas under the EC Habitats Directive and EC Birds Directive, as well as a number of Ramsar sites designated under the Ramsar Convention. There are also numerous Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) and Regionally Important Geological and Geomorphologic Sites (RIGGs), which are areas of national importance for nature conservation and geology. A number of species within the Plan area are protected by law, which also includes provision for habitat enhancement. Some habitats and species have a local importance to the Plan area, which have been highlighted in the Local Biodiversity Action Plan. These are the sites that haven’t been listed as statutory designation; however, they do have high ecological value. These are recognised as Local Wildlife Sites, which are non-statutory designations of high nature conservation value that are based on a sound formal scientific assessment. “
STRATEGIC POLICY PS 19: CONSERVING AND WHERE APPROPRIATE ENHANCING THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
The Councils will manage development so as to conserve and where appropriate enhance the Plan area’s distinctive natural environment, countryside and coastline, and proposals that have a significant adverse effect on them will be refused unless the need for and benefits of the development in that location clearly outweighs the value of the site or area and national policy protection for that site and area in question. When determining a planning application, consideration will need to be given to the following:-
Safeguard the Plan area’s habitats and species, geology, history, the coasline and landscapes;
Protect or where appropriate enhance sites of international, national, regional and local importance and, where appropriate, their settings in line with National Policy;
Have appropriate regard to the relative significance of international, national or local designations in considering the weight to be attached to acknowledged interests, ensuring that any international or national responsibilities and obligations are fully met in accordance with National Policy;
Protect or enhance biodiversity within the Plan area and enhance and/or restore networks of natural habitats in accordance with the Local Biodiversity Action Plans and Policy AMG 5;
Protect or enhance biodiversity through networks of green/ blue infrastructure;
Safeguard internationally, nationally and locally protected species;
Protect, retain or enhance the local character and distinctiveness of the individual Landscape Character Areas (in line with Policy AMG 2) and Seascape Character Areas (in line with Policy AMG 4);
Protect, retain or enhance trees, hedgerows or woodland of visual, ecological, historic cultural or amenity value.
6.2.2 AONBs and Special Landscape Areas (SLAs)
POLICY AMG1: AREA OF OUTSTANDING NATURAL BEAUTY MANAGEMENT PLANS
Proposals within or affecting the setting and/ or significant views into and out of the Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty must, where appropriate, have regard to the relevant Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty Management Plan.
POLISI AMG 2: SPECIAL LANDSCAPE AREAS When considering a proposal within Special Landscape Areas (SLA), as identified by the Proposals Map and listed below, there will be a need to appropriate consideration to the scale and nature of the development ensuring that there is no significant adverse detrimental impact on the landscape. The development should aim to maintain, enhance or restore the recognised character and qualities of the SLA. The proposal should have regard to the relevant ‘Statement of Value and Significance’. Where appropriate, the Councils will require a Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment in order to consider the impact of the development on the designated area. In exceptional circumstances, where development is necessary and could result in significant impact on the landscape, appropriate mitigation and compensation measures should be provided.
Special landscape Areas (SLAs) on Anglesey are:
Malltraeth Marsh and Surrounds
Parys Mountain and Slopes
Mynydd Mechell and Surrounds
Beaumaris Wooded Slopes and Llangoed Vale
Southern Anglesey Estatelands
6.2.3 Protecting and enhancing biodiversity
POLICY AMG 5: LOCAL BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION Proposals must protect and, where appropriate, enhance biodiversity that has been identified as being important to the local area by:
a. Avoiding significant harmful impacts through the sensitive location of development.
b. Considering opportunities to create, improve and manage wildlife habitats and natural landscape including wildlife corridors, stepping stones, trees, hedges, woodlands and watercourses.
A proposal affecting sites of local biodiversity importance will be refused unless they can conform with all of the following criteria:- 1. That there are no other satisfactory alternative sites available for the development. 2. The need for the development outweighs the importance of the site for local nature conservation; 3. That appropriate mitigation or compensation measures are included as part of the proposal. Where necessary, an Ecological Assessment which highlights the relevant local biodiversity issues should be included with the planning application.
6.5.22 Any application that may have a detrimental impact on protected species must be supported by an Ecological Assessment undertaken by a qualified professional. It will be essential to ensure that any survey related to the Ecological Assessment is undertaken at appropriate times of the year. When determining the need to carry out an Ecological Assessment there will be a number of qualifying factors that will require consideration, including scale, type and location of the development. Further guidance relating to the requirement for an Ecological Assessment can be received by contacting the relevant Biodiversity Officer for the Authority. Supplementary Planning Guidance will be published to provide advice on the matter.
6.5.23 In considering applications that could have a detrimental effect on locally important species and habitats, consideration will be given to the potential impact of the development could have on the conservation status of the species and habitat. The Council can impose planning conditions as a way of overcoming and mitigating any possible negative effect that could arise from the development, should permission be granted.
Note: In a recent presentation made by Cofnod (North Wales Environmental Information Service www.cofnod.org.uk), a not for profit company that has over 3 million records of species distribution in North Wales, it was pointed out that IACC is not using their service. In contrast, they have provided data on the location of species and habitats for over 52,000 planning applications in the rest of North Wales (none have been provided for Wrexham). This is an independent service and is one of four local environmental records centres in Wales – it is surprising that IACC are not using this data.
7. The 2017 – 2022 Plan – Isle of Anglesey County Council
This document sets out the Council’s Aims and Objectives for the next five years. It will be the reference point for the decision-making process at all levels. It will also:
set the framework we use to plan and drive the implementation of our priorities;
direct the way we shape our spending in the context of substantial funding reduction;
be used to monitor the progress of the priorities noted.
3 objectives for the plan:
OBJECTIVE 1 Ensure that the people of Anglesey can thrive and realise their long-term potential.
OBJECTIVE 2 Support vulnerable adults and families to keep them safe, healthy and as independent as possible.
OBJECTIVE 3 Work in partnership with our communities to ensure that they can cope effectively with change and developments whilst protecting our natural environment.
Relevant extracts are provided below.
7.1 Further information for Objective 3 concerning protection of the environment
The island’s natural and built environments are vital to the tourism sector. These unique features need to be safeguarded and enhanced and their value as socio-economic resources maximised. In this context, the need to balance the effects of proposed major developments on the local environment will need to be minimised and mitigated. As a result, the Council will need to consider whether it can continue providing some services in their current form. The involvement of our stakeholders and our willingness to listen will be crucial in this context. Safeguarding and developing the use of the Welsh language and its contribution to the island’s cultural identity and heritage will be given priority. The Council’s own developments will be guided by financial responsibility and longer-term sustainability.
Development and Promotion
We will develop the Island sensitively whilst safeguarding its natural assets.
1. Promote the Island as a popular tourist destination and advertise what it has to offer both nationally and internationally.
2. Make sure that Planning decisions support the aims and objectives of this Plan.
3. Increase recycling rates to 70% and reduce the amount of landfill waste.
4. Reduce flooding risk in areas of concern.
5. Become more energy efficient and decrease our carbon emissions by concentrating on Leisure Centres, Schools and street lighting.
We will work with others to enable innovative change to happen.
1. Work with communities to keep important assets open.
2. Increase the use of the Welsh Language in the Council and promote its use across communities and local organisations.
3. Change the way we deliver services by working with others to find alternative models.
4. Use IT to transform the way Council services are delivered to ensure that they remain cost effective and efficient.
Alignment with the Well-being of Future Generations [WFG] Act
Alignment with the Act is mentioned, but no details provided other than re-stating how the general actions that are needed for the Act. The limited text does state “Encouraging our citizens to use our natural environment can lead to improved health.”
The Council will need to work with citizens, communities and partners to realise the aims and objectives outlined in this plan. This will create the partnership required to: address the demands placed on services during this period of financial austerity; encourage communities to take ownership of specific assets; agree on alternative models to deliver specific services.
7.2. Relevant information from the IACC Progress report, 2017 – 2018
Objective 3: Protect and enhance the natural and built environment by securing
good quality modern infrastructure
Report states: “Objective on track”
Summary text on achievements of the council for Objective 3:
We have engaged with Horizon Nuclear Power, the North Wales Grid Connection project and key stakeholders to ensure that during pre-application consultations and discussions, any negative impacts are avoided, managed or mitigated.
During the year, the Council adopted the Joint Local Development Plan (JLDP). The JLDP delivers a land use development strategy concentrating on sustainable development up to 2026. Its aim will be
Guide the development of housing, retail, employment and other uses
Include policies which will aid the Local Planning Authority’s decision with regard to planning applications
Protect areas to ensure the maintenance and enrichment of the natural and built environment.
Relevant to protecting the natural environment:
During the year we further implemented our Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) Management Plan by developing and managing volunteer programme events, working with local community councils on the installation of new dog fouling bins and undertook invasive species control at various sites on the island to ensure species local to Anglesey can thrive.
Several projects were approved through the Welsh Government’s Sustainable Development Fund (SDF). Examples of which include Geo-kayaking, volunteering with the North Wales Wildlife Trust, Afon Wygyr water quality and habitat improvement. We also worked in partnership to designate Dark Sky project areas to decrease light pollution within areas on Anglesey.
Anglesey still boasts many of the best beaches in Wales, we hold six Blue Flag awards. The Blue Flag is only awarded to the very best beaches in Wales and recognises high standard of water quality, cleanliness, safety and excellent facilities.
Anglesey takes pride in its environment and cleanliness, during the year 93% of our streets were surveyed and reported as clean. Whilst we recognise this is a positive position we acknowledge more can be done.
Councillors’ backed the official launch of a joint campaign by Surfers Against Sewage and Save Our Rivers groups.
During the year, following a severe flood across Anglesey, Welsh Government aided three drainage schemes and awarded funding for design work on the Beaumaris and the Nant y Felin Flood Alleviation Schemes. Funding was also granted for design work on the Red Wharf Bay Coastal Risk Scheme.
In addition, we have worked with and encouraged Natural Resources Wales to undertake works to improve the situation so that the risk of flooding in Llangefni and Dwyran is reduced.
Following the floods, the council was also awarded funding from the central Welsh Government funds and the Flood Branch of Welsh Government to carry out repairs to damaged flood relief assets and drainage investigation CCTV works in Menai Bridge and Llanfairpwll.
A long-term solution to landslides has been designed for strengthening and improving the A545 route between Menai Bridge and Beaumaris. It is hoped these designs will help draw the significant funding needed from the Welsh Government to secure a long-term solution and prevent more costly collapses below the road in the future.
In addition we have maintained the condition of our roads at a good level compared to other welsh regions and repaired in excess of 9,000 pot holes during 2017/18.
8. Summary of policy relevant points for consideration by the CLP
A survey of 214 Anglesey residents in late 2016 indicated that the natural environment (landscape, views) was the most important aspect that they liked about living on Anglesey (See Section 3.3.4). This response was top of the list for 5 of the 6 areas of Anglesey and second to community spirit/neighbours in the sixth area (Canolbarth Môn and Llifon). From a CLP perspective, including an environmental component as a priority in future policies and canvassing literature would clearly be advantageous. Such an approach would align with (i) Labour’s environmental priorities of preventing further climate change, achieving high air and water quality, reversing the decline in biodiversity and protecting natural habitats; (ii) the goals of the Well-being of Future Generations (Wales) Act 2015, including a biodiverse and healthy natural environment that contributes to the mental and physical health of the population; and (iii) the well-being objectives identified for Gwynedd and Anglesey by the Public Services Board, including the need to protect the natural environment and promoting the use of natural resources to improve health. Improving the natural environment would also provide economic benefits associated with increased attractiveness of the island to tourists.
The following more specific recommendations are suggested for discussion, including reference to the Sections in this report where supporting information can be found:
Greenspaces More investment in opening up the countryside around villages and towns by increasing access to footpaths, with enhanced footpath signage, would have benefits for people’s mental and physical health and be a popular policy (Section 2.5). Whilst many footpaths are already present, their signage is poor, making it difficult for people to know where to go. Investment could be made in colour way-marked paths of different lengths leading from the centre of towns/villages together with installation of a map board and provision of locally available/online leaflets showing these routes.
Enhancing the appearance of our beaches. Reducing litter/debris on our beaches by increased bin supply and emptying, regular council/volunteer led beach cleaning activities, encouraging a responsible attitude to litter by boat and beach users and encouraging Anglesey people to recycle. The appearance of beaches was identified by Anglesey residents as a component of what they least liked about where they live (Section 3.3.4).
Biodiversity Increase the connectivity between areas designated for protection of wildlife on Anglesey, to increase the chance of wildlife spreading to new areas and increase biodiversity in areas such as central Anglesey where this is relatively low (Section 2.3, 2.4). This could in part be achieved by providing financial incentives to increase mixed species tree planting (currently only 4.3% of the land area of Anglesey is woodland, Section 2.4). The number of local nature reserves could also be increased, including encouraging local communities to become involved in their management.
Flooding Encouraging increased investment in coastal and river flood defences to reduce the number of properties and businesses at the highest risk of flooding and increase the take-up of the flood warning service on Anglesey (Sections 2.2, 3.4.2, 5.1).
Reducing fly-tipping, by increasing likelihood of fines etc. Fly-tipping and litter was the most frequently noted concern that residents had about living here (Section 3.3.4).
Reduce single-use plastic usage on the island, with a policy of ensuring no such plastic is used in schools, council offices, public service providers.
Reducing agricultural and septic tank run-off into lakes and rivers, causing algal blooms, by encouraging adherence to best practices (Section 2.1)